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What is the Kalina Cycle?
The Kalina Cycle was invented by Alexander Kalina, a Russian engineer, which he first demonstrated in the mid 1960's.
The Kalina Cycle is different from the Rankine Cycle in that the Kalina Cycle uses a water and ammonia solution in low temperature Waste Heat Recovery applications, such as geothermal power plants. Early attempts beginning in the early 1990's at proving the Kalina Cycle failed most notably due to corrosion problems. See following research paper from 2009 for more information:
Corrosion in the Kalina cycle
An investigation into corrosion problems at the Kalina cycle
geothermal power plant in Húsavík, Iceland - by Peter Whittaker
While the Kalina Cycle provides an increase in efficiency over simple cycle power plants, there are far-more efficient technologies such as;
The CHP System below operates at a system efficiency of > 90%, which is about 50% greater than the Kalina Cycle.
The Graz Cycle
exceeds 65% net electrical system efficiency
which is much
Clean Power Generation Solutions
Running on "green fuel" such as Biomethane, B100 Biodiesel, Synthesis Gas or natural gas, our CHP Systems are the greenest "clean power generation" systems available as they generate no new net additions of greenhouse gas emissions or other hazardous air pollutants.
The CHP System below is Rated at 900 kW and Features:
(2) Natural Gas Engines @ 450 kW each on one Skid with Optional
Selective Catalytic Reduction system that removes Nitrogen Oxides to "non-detect."
The Effective Heat Rate of the CHP
System below is
4100 btu/kW with a Net System Efficiency of 92%.
Our CHP Systems may be the best solution for your company's economic and environmental sustainability as we "upgrade" natural gas to clean power with our clean power generation solutions.
Our Emissions Abatement solutions reduce Nitrogen Oxides to "non-detect" which means our CHP Systems can be installed and operated in most EPA non-attainment regions!
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What is Waste Heat Recovery?
There are more than 500,000 smokestacks in the U.S. that are "wasting" heat, an untapped resource that can be converted to energy with Waste Heat Recovery technologies.
About 10% of these 500,000 smokestacks represent about 75% of the available wasted heat which has a stack gas exit temperature above 500 degrees F. which could generate approximately 50,000 megawatts of electricity annually and an annual market of over $75 billion in gross revenues before tax incentives and greenhouse gas emissions credits.
Waste Heat Recovery technologies represent the least cost solution which provides the greatest return on investment, than any other possible green energy technology or "carbon free energy" opportunity!
Typical Waste Heat Recovery Installation
In some cogeneration and trigeneration designs, the exhaust gases can be used to activate a thermal wheel or a desiccant dehumidifier. Thermal wheels use the exhaust gas to heat a wheel with a medium that absorbs the heat and then transfers the heat when the wheel is rotated into the incoming airflow.
A professional engineer should be involved in designing and sizing of the Waste Heat Recovery section. For a proper and economical operation, the design of the heat recovery section involves consideration of many related factors, such as the thermal capacity of the exhaust gases, the exhaust flow rate, the sizing and type of heat exchanger, and the desired parameters over a various range of operating conditions of the cogeneration or trigeneration system — all of which need to be considered for proper and economical operation.
Many processes, especially in industrial applications, produce large amounts of excess heat – i.e., heat beyond what can be efficiently used in the process. Waste Heat Recovery methods attempt to extract some of the energy as work that otherwise would be wasted.
Typical methods of recovering heat in industrial applications include direct heat recovery to the process itself, recuperators, regenerators, and waste heat boilers. In many applications – especially those with low-temperature waste heat streams, such as automotive applications – the economic benefits of waste heat recovery do not justify the cost of the recovery systems. Innovative, affordable methods that are highly efficient, applicable to low-temperature streams, and/or suitable for use with corrosive or “dirty” wastes could expand the number of viable applications of waste heat recovery, as well as improve the performance of existing applications. Our focus is on the development of innovative Waste Heat Recovery processes and techniques that are (1) more efficient than conventional methods, yet still cost-effective; and (2) applicable to waste streams from which heat cannot be recovered easily with conventional methods.
Turning to cooling, air conditioning systems consume approximately 10% of the energy used in U.S. buildings and are key contributors to peak demand. Consequently, improving the energy efficiency of air conditioning systems would substantially reduce overall energy consumption and enhance grid reliability. For example, compressors require cooling to dissipate the heat produced during compression and could benefit from improved surface heat transfer – innovative designs could increase the available heat-transfer area or materials enhancement could increase the heat flux between the hot and cool sides of a heat exchanger. Similarly, a reduction in the requirement for condenser cooling could provide significant energy savings if more-efficient, cost-effective technologies were developed.
This is where we believe waste heat recovery integrated with our Solar Trigeneration energy systems represents a unique opportunity for commercial and industrial clients.
Industrial Waste Heat Recovery
Waste Heat Recovery from exit gases can significantly increase the energy efficiency of industrial processes. Energy can be recovered from flue and stack gases, vent gases, and combustion gases at a variety of temperatures at large-scale industrial plants (chemical plants, petroleum refineries, biorefineries, pulp and paper mills, etc.).
The Renewable Energy Institute and it's co-founders and board members are renewable energy and clean power generates advocates. One of the co-founders and board members has a Ph.D in engineering and is able to perform engineering feasibility studies, as well as front-end engineering. Some of these services may be performed in affiliation with partner companies, including a Top 20 ENR EPC company.
Did you know that the Graz Cycle - also known as the Zero Emission Power Plant - is one of the most efficient and environmentally-friendly power and energy solutions, and has exceeded 65% efficiency? For more information on the Graz Cycle, visit www.GrazCycle.com.
The Graz Cycle is also known as the "Zero Emission Power Plant!"
hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of billions of dollars every year for
oil, much of it from the Middle East, is just about the single stupidest
thing that modern society could possibly do. It’s very difficult to
think of anything more idiotic than that.”
~ R. James Woolsey, Jr., former Director of the CIA
According to R. James Woolsey, for Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, “The basic insight is to realize that global warming, the geopolitics of oil, and warfare in the Persian Gulf are not separate problems — they are aspects of a single problem, the West’s dependence on oil.”
American jobs. American Energy Independence. Keep the 1/2 Trillion dollars in America we now send to OPEC and foreign countries each year to buy the oil America needs. And most importantly, to save the lives of America's brave soldiers, sailors and airmen fighting & dying for muslim oil.
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